| Thursday, June 29, 2006
| LIVING LARGE, GIVING LARGE
|WARREN BUFFET'S $1.5 Billion a year contribution to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has been making headlines. Buffet's not alone. Here are some big names who have made a big impact on their special causes.
Childhood health; His Newman's Own line has generated $200 million since 1982.
Disaster relief: Her Angel Network has raised $59 miilion for Third World schools, $ 10 million for Katrina, and more.
early education and the arts; Her foundation has raised $56 millino for chidl care.
MICHAEL J. FOX,
Parkinson's research; So far, he's raised $80 million to find a cure, driving scientists closer to the finish line.
cancer research; His ubiquitous Livestrong bracelets have raised $55 million for cancer.
environment; His hit film had done more in a month for green awareness that his 20 years in D.C.
education, medical research; SunAmerica finance tycoon had poured $2 billion into public education.
environment; intel's co-founder is the world's top giver since 2001 at $7 billion total.
global health; Nobel Peace Prize winner, widely admired ex-president, tireless disease-prevention worker.
international security; He's given over $1.25 billion in global aid and founded the Nuclear Threat initiative.
global health and education; The galaxy's alpha giver; no one is close to his nearly $30 billion in lifetime gifts.
|posted by infraternam meam @ 11:34 PM
| Wednesday, June 28, 2006
| IT'S NOT A BIRD. IT'S NOT A PLANE. IT'S A SUPERMAN QUIZ.
|Test how prepared you are for the latest adventures of America's favorite superhero.
1. What is Superman's Kryptonian name?
2. Who created Superman?
A. Bob Kane & Perry White
B. Jerry Siegel & Joe Shuster
C. Stan Lee & Ethan Marvel
3. What is the name of superman's dog?
4. What are the name of Superman's birth parents?
A. Jonathan & Martha
B. Jor-El & Zor-El
C. Jor-El & Lara
D. Jonathan & Lana
5. What does white Kryptonite do?
A. Strips Superman's powers
B. Kills him
C. Kills all plant life
D. Blinds him
6. Which Academy Award winner named his son Kal-El?
A. Mel Gibson
B. Marlon Brando
C. Robin Williams
D. Nicolas Cage
7. Who directed the first Superman movie?
A. Richard Donner
B. Steven Spielberg
C. George Lucas
D. Guy Hamilton
8. Which of these actors has not played Superman?
A. Christopher Reeve
B. George Reeve
C. Dean Cain
D. Brandon Routh
9. Which of these awards did the 1978 movie win?
A. Golden Globe
D. Writer's Guild
10.What is the name of the poem Lois Lane writes about Superman?
A. "Can You Read My MInd?"
B. "Fly Me to The Moon"
C. "someone I have never traveled"
D. "The Rose"
11. Which of these people do not work at the Daily Planet?
A. Lois Lane
B. J. Jonah Jameson
C. Jimmy Olsen
D. Perry White
12.Which villain killed Superman in a 1993 comic adventure?
A. Lex Luthor
13. What state is Smallville located in?
D. It's never revealed
14. What state is the comic version of Metropolis in?
A. New York
D. It's never revealed
15. Which of these actresses did'nt screen-test for the role of Lois Lane in the original movie?
A. Anne Archer
B. Lesley Anne Warren
C. Carrie Fisher
D. Stockard Channing
16. What '80s TV star has a cameo in the original film as an Army major?
A. Tom Selleck
B. Larry Hagman'
C. Harry Anderson
D. Ted Danson
17. Superman made his debut in what comic book?
A. Detective Comics
B. The Man of Steel
C. World's First
D. Action Comics
18. Which "Seinfeld" co-star voiced Superman in a series of American Express commercials starring Jerry himself?
A. Patrick Warburton (Paddy)
B. Jason Alexander (George)
C. John O'Hurley (J.Peterman)
D. Michael Richards (Kramer)
19. Which of these heroes was not in the original Justica League of America in Superman?
A. Wonder Woman
B. Green Arrow
20. Who composed the iconic "Superman" theme music?
A. Bernard Hermann
B. James Horner
C. John Williams
D. Jerry Goldsmith
HOW SUPER ARE YOU?
20 correct :
Any choice you're alter ego is a mild-mannered, bespectacled reporter by day? Because you, friend, are channeling Clark Kent.
Excellent effort. You probably know all the words to "Can You Rrad My Mind?", too.
A solid showing, but there's more to the Superman legend than just Christopher Reeve movies.
You consider yourself more of a Spider-Man fan, don'tcha?
It's about time you climbed out from under that rock you've been living under for the past 30 years.
|posted by infraternam meam @ 2:11 PM
| Tuesday, June 27, 2006
| INTERVIEW OF TIME MAGAZINE TO MRS. IMELDA MARCOS OF THE PHILIPPINES
|"I'VE BEEN CALLED A THIEF"
After 20 years of wrangling over the allegedly ill-gotten wealth of ex-dictator Ferdinand Marcos, his widow Imelda, who turns 77 next week, and the Philippine government maybe nearing a settlement. She spoke with TIME's Nelly Sindayen about wealth, friends and her shoes.
How rich are you?
If you know how rich you are, my dear, then you're not really rich. Frankly, I don't want to put numbers (out there)....The vultures want a piece of the Marcos meat.
How did your husband become so wealthy?
Marcos was a gold trader. When he entered politics in 1949, he had tons and tons of gold...It wasn't stolen.
Why do you sometimes say you're poor?
I am poor not in material things but in the truth. I've been called a thief, the biggest ever...(Philippine officials) think they have taken everything away from me, including my shoes. But actually that's my biggest defense: when they opened my closet, they found shoes instead of skeletons.
Many notorious leaders have been kind to you.
When I visited Cuba, (Fidel Castro) drove for me. He told me he had driven for only two people in his life -- his mother and me. At the height of the cold war, I visited China. When I saw Chairman Mao, I kissed his hand, so he kissed my hand. "I like you", the Chairman said. "You're very beautiful, and childlike".
What will you do next?
A project that will wipe out poverty in the Philippines in two years ... using the Marcos wealth. Long after I'm gone, people will remember me for building them homes, roads and hospitals and giving them food. The people should stop laughing at all this.They should stop thinking that I'm a bit touched in the head.
(Source: TIMEMAG/July 3'06)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 3:34 PM
| Wednesday, June 21, 2006
| SOCCER UNITES THE WORLD...(FIFA) FEDERATION INTERNATIONALE de FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION
|Throughout history, humans have played some version of a kicking game. What the world now calls assocaition football, or soccer, or evolved in medieval Britain and was formalized by England's Foofball Association in mid-19th century. British sailors and merchants spread the game to the far corners of the world, where soccers' simple formula -- imagination and a ball -- found instant translation. Today the game is played in every nation on earth, by more than 120 million regular players and countless others on beaches, playgrounds and streets.
Precursors to association football -- soccer, for short - began as far back as 1200 B.C. , with the Chinese kicking game tsu chu. Similar games have been played the world over, from the Romans' harpastum to the North American Indians' pasuckuakohowog. English, "mob football" was widely popular, but so violent that it was outlawed five times by medieval kings. In the 1840s, English schools finally drew up rules for this rough-and-tumble football, and the modern game took place.
In the late 1800s, "football" gave rise to a number of organized games in which hands and feet were used to advance the ball.
Australian rules football.
Soccers' governing body Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was formed.
Founding European members:
First African member, South Africa
then followed by:
First South American member: Argentina
then followed by:
First North American member: Canada
International soccer play is slowed by the start of WWII. A handful of goodwill matches between combatants are held on neutral territory.
England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales resign from FIFA to protest continuing membership of former enemies from WWI.
First radio broadcast of a game, in England.
then followed by:
First Asian member: Thailand
First World Cup held in Uruguay. Thirteen countries participated, Uruguay wins.
Reeling from the Depression in Europe, many countries skip the World Cup in Uruguay.
First live, televised soccer game, in England.
Japan and Germany removed from FIFA for four years after WWII.
then followed by:
First Australian and Oceanic member, New Zealand.
Fourth World Cup tournament, delayed eight years because of WWII.
First live international TV coverage of World Cup, in Sweden. Brazeil wins.
China withdraws from FIFA after Taiwan is admitted. Rejoins in 1980.
Guinea becopmes FIFA's 100th member.
Turning point for U.S. soccer. Pele' joins the New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League.
South Africa expelled from FIFA over apartheid, reinstated in 1992.
A rise in hooliganism and fan disasters prompts England, in 1990, to ban fenced enclosures in stadiums.
Breaking of Yugoslavia and U.S.S.R. add 14 new membes to FIFA.
First FIFA Women's World Cup, played in China, U.S. wins.
For Bosnia aggression, Yugoslavia barred from European Championship Finals.
Members grouped by continent, not FIFA convention.
Newest membes to join FIFA: Comoros and East Timor.
North America (Total players: 29,040,900)
A sport for everyone
Soccer in the U.S. is both male and female sport, since a 1970s boom in youth soccer taught girls to play -- and equal opportunity laws opened new horizons for them at the college level. In 1991 the U.S., won the first Women's World Cup, and repeated in 1999. With a strong showing in World Cup 2002, the U.S. men are also on the rise, although on any given day regional rivals Mexico and Canada -- or smaller nations such as Guatemala or Costa Rica -- can humble their giant neighbor. Soccer is the great equalizer.
South America (Total players: 15,236,800/Adult and youth participation less than 1percent)
Barrios and big money
Overcoming chronic poverty and poor infrastructure, South America consistently produces some of themost exciting soccer on Earth. Brazil and Argentina are proving grounds for young players, whose flambouyance and skill are admired by the rest of the world. Many players are snapped up by wealthy European teams after making their mark at home, where clubs rarely have the money to keep them.
Europe(Total players: 35,783,000)
Lure of the rich and famous
Birthplace of the modern game, England helped popularize soccer worldwide; in 1966, on its home soil, it won its single World Cup. Roday most global soccer revenue comes from Europe, home to the world's richest professional clubs. Hosted by Germany, the 2006 World Cup will bring together the best national teams in the world, who survived a rigorous, two-year competition to qualify.
Africa (Total players: 6,984,500/Youth female participants less than 1percent)
Soccer's new frontier
Africa already produces its share of superstars, but it lacks strong domestic leagues and loses many of those stars to European clubs. Like South America, Africa is poor in resources but rich in talent, with thousands of gifted young players dreaming of the big time. Teams such as Nigeria and Ghana light up the world stage and could have a home continent advantage in 2010, when South Africa hosts Africa's first World Cup.
Asia (34,708,100/Adult and youth female participation less than 1percent)
A growing passion
Over the past two decades, a heated soccer rivalry -- among Japan, China and South Korea -- has stirred soccer passions acorss the continent. Not all countries share the fervor, however; India and Pakistan prefer other sports, especially cricket. Meanwhole, oil-rich Persian Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar are investing huge sums of money in their programs, hiring the best coaches and playersw money can buy.
Australia and Oceania (Total players: 628,300)
Soccer down under
Long dominated by cricket, rugby and Austrialian Rules football, Australia had lately made room for soccer, fortifying its national team with immigrants from the Balkans and otehr soccer-mad regions. The 2006 World Cup will be Australia's first appearance in 32 years, after beating Uruguay in a dramatic playoff series to qualify. New Zealand, which hosted teh Under 17 World Championship in 1999, also has a competitive national team.
(Source: Abstracted from NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC from FIFA, First World Atlas of Football)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 1:19 AM
| Tuesday, June 20, 2006
| SAD NEWS FOR THE FILIPINO COMMUNITY IN THE U.S. OF A
|COUPLE CONVICTED OF HARBORING MAID
They face up to 45 years in prison, deportation.
A wealthy Brookfield couple face up to 45 years in prison, forfeiture of their home and deportation to their native Philippines after being the first convicted in eastern Wisconsin of imposing forced labor on an illegal immigrant they harbored as a maid for 19 years.
A federal jury deliberated seven hours before finding Jefferson N. and Elnora Calimlim guilty of all immigration charges filed against them, including what a prosecutor said may be the nation's first forced labor conviction not involving use of violence.
Assistant U.S. Attorney Tracy Johnson hailed the convictions as a victory for protecting the civil rights of all people and preventing human trafficking.
"Holding somebody in involuntary servitude goes against the very nature and foundation of the United States." Johnson said in an interview. "The Department of Justice is dedicated to preserving people's rights, regardless of their status in life."
Defense attorneys immediately vowed to appeal, saying the case was rife with issues because the forced labor charged was enacted in 2000 and largely untested in courts.
Prosecutors contended in trial that the Calimlims exploited and manipulated an uneducated womam from an impoverised family into thinking she had no choice but to work for them for long hours with minimal pay under harsh restrictions or face deportation.
Defense attorneys acknowledged that the family went to great lengths to keep her hidden in the home, but said that was done to protect her, not coerse her. They said the woman, Irma Martinez,agreed to the rules because she wanted to work for them rather than live in the Philippines.
The Calimlims' son Jefferson M. Calimlim, 31, was found guilty of one felony for harboring an illegal immigrant but acquitted of two other charges. He faces a maximum five-year term when he and his parents are sentenced Sept. 15.
The parents each were convicted of harboring an illegal immigrant for financial gain, conspiracy to harbor an illegal immigrant, forced labor and attempted forced labor.
Because they are legal, permanent residents of the United States but citizens of the Philippines, the parents face "practically inevitable" deportation, Johnson told Chief Judge Rudolph T. Randa as she argued that the couple be jailed pending sentencing.
Deportation will be decided not by the judge but by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, a branch of the Department of Homeland Security, Johnson said.
Johnson argued that the couple are a high flight risk because of their wealth and family connections to the Philippines, given substantial prison time they faced.
She said they would be unable to fathom changing from "Living from a life of priviledge to living in a 10-by-13 cell".
The husband is a practicing ear, nose and throat doctor, his wife is a licensed physician who stopped working in 1982.
Defense attorneys Tom Brown and Michael Fitzgerald objected to immediate incarceration, saying the two were professionals who would not want to be separated from their three U.S. born children or the husband's medical practice.
GOVERNMENT HOLDS PASSPORTS
Randa declined to jail the couple but said the government will continue to hold their passports.
The family declined to comment, as did Brown and Fitzgerald. Martinez, who is living in Chicago with federal assistance, was not in court when the verdicts were delivered.
Defense attorney Rodney Cubbie, representing the Calimlims' son, argued that his client should never have been charged. He was not involved in hiring, paying or setting the terms of Martinez's employment, which began when he was 11.
After graduating from college, Jeff Jr., was living at home when agents raided the family's 8,600-square-foot home on Still Point Trail in September 2004 - acting on a tip from the estranged wife of another son, Jack Calimlim.
During the raid, Jeff Jr. lied to an FBI agent who qucikly questioned the son as he was sitting on a bathroom toilet. The son said he had'nt seen the maid in about a year, but the father showed agents where she was hiding in her basement bedroom closet. The jury acquitted the son of lying to the agent.
The eight day trial included testimony from the maid and her parents, whom the federal government had flown to the United States and who lived in Chicago in preparation for the trial.
Defense attorneys focused their attacks on the forced labor charges, acknowledged that the couple did knowingly harbor an illegal immigrant.
They argued, however, that it was not done for financial gain - a required element of the crime. They said the couple, who live in a US$ 1.2 million suburban Milwaukee home with tennis courts and a four-car garage, were not motivated by obtaining cheap labor as the prosecution contended.
They said the family was driven by their Filipino culture.
The couple were raised in well-off families, with the family trees dominated by generations of doctors and nurses. Elnora Calimlim said she and her siblings each had their own nanny growing up and she was very close to her nanny, confiding in her like a mother.
Elnora's father, a physician, was the one who found Irma Martinez and made arrangements for her to be his daughter's housekeeper and help raise his grandchildren.
Susan French, a prosecutor with the U.S. Department of Justice's Civil Rights division in Washington, DC, told jurors that the Calimlim's stance that they wanted to help, not exploit, an impoverished Filipino woman, was "bogus" and "preposterous".
If they wanted to help her and her family, why didn't they pay her a U.S. minimum wage? French asked.
Elnora Calimlim testified that Irma Martinez was paid US$1,800 a year for the first 10 years and US$ 4,800 a year thereafter.
Brown said those wages, while "peanuts" in the U.S., were worth much more in pesos to the Martinez family. With the wages, they bought a sturdier home, land to farm, farming tools, medicine and education for their children.
(Source: JOURNAL SENTINEL by Lisa Sink Isink@journalsentinel.com)
WOMAN ENSLAVED BY PHYSICIANS FOR ALMOST TWO DECADES
A Broofield, Wisconsin couple and their son, who kept a domestic servant in their home under slave-like conditions for close to two decades, were convited last Friday on human trafficking charges.
A Federal jury returned guilty verdicts on all counts against three members of the wealthy family for human trafficking, Jefferson Sr. and Elnora Calimlim, both physicians in Milwaukee, were charged with using threats of serious harm and physical restraint to coerce a 40-year old Filipino woman to serve as their domestic servant for almost 20 years.
The indictment also charged the couple and their son, Jefferson Jr., with alien harboring for financial gain. Jefferson Calimlim, Jr. was also charged with making false statements to federal investigators.
At trial, the government proved that from 1985 through Sept. 29, 2004, the defendants employed a female Filipino national as a domestic worker who was responsible for caring for the Calimlim children, cleaning the house and preparing the family meals. The Filipino woman lived at the Calimlim residence and was promised a salary that would be "kept in an account".
She was working to send money home to her family in the Philippines. However, she did not have access to the account or know its whereabouts. For 19 years, Jefferson Sr. and Elnora Calimlim coerced the victim to work long hours, seven days a week as their domestic servant for little money.
The Calimlims threatened the victim with deportation and imprisonment if she disobeyed them, and kept her inside their home, not allowing her to socialize, communicate freely with outside world, or leave the house unsupervised. The victim was required to hide in her basement bedroom wherever non-family members were present in the house.
"Preying on this woman's hope for a better life, this couple instead forced her into a life of involuntary servitude", said Wan J. KIm, assistant attorney general.
"The Justice Department takes these crimes seriously and is committed to prosecuting those involved in the systematic abuse and degradation of others", she said.
The case against the Calimlims was initiated from a call made to Immigration and Customs Enforcement national hotline. ICE law enforcement personnel staff the hotline around the clock to take leads from the public about suspicious activity or reports of crimes. Leads generated from hotline calls have resulted in the arrests of a wide range of criminals, including aggravated felons, smugglers, fugivitives, sexual predators and aliens who have re-entered the country after being deported.
Defense attorneys acknowledged that the family went to great lengths to keep her hidden in the home, but said that was done to protect her, not coerce her. They said the woman, Irma Martinez, agreed to the rules because she wanted to work for them rather than live in the Philippines.
"It is a basic and fundamental human right to be free, and no person should ever be forced to live in a world of fear, virtual isolation and servitude", said Brian Falvey, resident agent-in-charge of the Milwaukee ICE office.
"[Their] conviction is a testament to our solemn commitment to protect those who cannot protect themselves. the exploitation of the illegal work force is modern day slavery, and ICE will aggressively investigage those who engage in trafficking human beings", he added.
Jefferson Sr. and Elnora Calimlim each face a maximum sentence of 65 years in prison, mandatory restitution, and US$1.25 million in fines. Jefferson Calimlim Jr., faces up to five years in prison, restitution, and US$250,000 in fines. The government is also seeking forfeiture of the Calimlim's house as an "intrumentality of the crime", since it was used to enslaved the victim.
Defense attorneys said they plan to appeal the convictions, claiming the case was "rife with issues"because the forced labor charged was enacted in 2000 and largely untested in the courts.
(Source: Abstracted from the write-ups of Jim Kouri, June 1, 2006 / 10:37:21 PM)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 12:34 AM
| Monday, June 19, 2006
| FATHER'S DAY / 18JUNE
|FATHER'S DAY, is really quite a new occassion, only becoming an official national holiday by an Act of U.S. Congress in 1972.
During the Vcitorian era, for most families, the commanding presence of "Father" dictated that everyday is Father's Day.
Fathers want excatly the same thing that mothers do. Acknowledgements fo their efforts on behalf of the family and recognition by the family of the father's role, whatever that is these days.
(Source: Mrs. Sharp's Traditions by: Sarah Ban Breathnach)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 12:31 AM
| Monday, June 12, 2006
| ROCKIN' ON THE RIGHT
|A conservative journal spins the top 50 conservative rock songs of all time.
On first glance, rock n' roll music isn't very conservative.It doesn't fare much better on second or third glance (or listen), either. Neil Young has a new song called "Let's Impeach the President". Last year, the Rolling Stones made news with "Sweet Neo Con", another anti-Bush ditty.
But when rock songs really are conservative - and there are more of them than you might think. Last year, I asked readers of National Review OnLine to nominate conservative rock songs.Hundreds of suggestion poured in. I've siftted through them all, downloaded scores of mp3s, and puzzled over a lot of the lyrics. What follows is a list of the 50 greatest conservative rock songs of all time, as determined by me and few others.
What makes a great conservative rock song? The lyrics must convey a conservative idea or sentiment, such as skepticism of government or support for traditional values. And, to be sure, it must be a great rock song.We're biased in favor of songs that are already popular, but have tossed ina few little known gems. In several cases, the musicians are outspoken liberals. Others are notorious libertines. For the purposes of this list, however, we don't hold any of this against them. Finally, it would have been easy to include half a dozen songs by both the Kinks and Rush, bit we've made an effort to cast a wide net. Woever said diversity isn't a conservative principle?
So here are National Review's top 50 conservative rock songs of all time. Go ahead and quibble with the rankings, complain about what we put on. In the end, though, we hope you'll admit that its' a pretty cool playlist for your iPod.
1. "Won't Get Fooled Again", by the Who.
The conservative movement is full of disilutioned revolutionaries; this could be their them song, an oath that swears off naive idealism once and for all. "There's nothing in the streets/Look any different to me/And the slogans are replaced, by-the-bye....Meet the new boss/Same as the old boss".
2. "Taxman", by the Beatles.
A George Harrison masterpiece with a famous guitar riff: "If your drive a car, I'll tax your seat/If you get too cold, I'll tax the heat/If you take a walk, I'll tax your feet". The song closes with a humorous jab at a death taxes: "Now my advice for those who die/Decalre the pennies on your eyes."
3. "Sympathy for the Devil", by the Rolling Stones.
The devil is a tempter who leans hard on moral relativism - he will try to make you think that "every cop is a criminal/And all the sinners saints." What's more, he is the sinister inspiration for the cruelties of Bolshevism; "I stuck around St. Petersburg/When I saw it was a time for a change/Killed the czar and his ministers/Anastasia screamed in vain."
4. "Sweet Home Alabama", by Lynyrd Skynyrd.
A tribute to the region of America that liberlas love to loathe, taking a shot at Neil Young's Canadian arrogance along the way: " A Southern man don't need him around anyhow".
5. "Wouldn't It Be Nice", the the Beach Boys.
Pro-abstinecne and pro-marraige; "Maybe if we think and wish and hope and pray itmight come true/Baby then there wouldn't be a single thing we couldn't do/We could be married/And then we'd be happy."
6. "Gloria," by U2.
Just because a rock song is about faith does'nt mean that it's conservative. But what about a rock song that's about faith and whose chorus is in Latin? That's beautifully reactionary: "Gloria/In te domine/Gloria/Exultate."
7. "Revolution," by the Beatles.
"You say you want a revolution/Well you know/We all want to change the world...Don't you know you can count me out?" What's more, Communism isn't even cool: "If you go carrying pictures of chairman Mao/You ain't going to make it with anyone anyhow."
8. "Bodies", by the Sex Pistols.
Violent and vulgar, but also a searing anti-abortion anthem by the quintessential punk band: "It's not an animal/It's an abortion."
9. "Don't Tread on Me," by Metallica.
A head-banging tribute to the doctrine of peace through strength, written in response to the first Gulf War: "So be it/Threaten no more/To secure peace is to prepare for war".
10. "20th Century Man", by the Kinks.
"You keep all your smart modern writers/Give me William Shakespeare/You keep all your smart modern painters/I'll take Rembrandt, Titian, da Vinci and Gainsborough... I was born in a welfare state/Got no privacy/And people dressed in gray/Got no privacy got no liberty/'Cause the 20th century people/Took it all away from me".
11. " The Trees" by Rush.
Before there was Tush Limbaugh, there was Rush, a Canadian band whose lyrics are often libertarian. What happens in a forest when equal rights become equal outcomes" "The trees are all kept equal/By hatchet, axe and saw".
12. "Neighborhood Bully", by Bon Dylan.
A pro-Israel song released in 1983, two years after the bombing of Iraq's nuclear reactor, this ironic number could be a them seong for the Bush Doctrine; "He destroyed a bomb factory, nobody was glad/The bombs were meant for Him/ He was supposed to feel bad/He's the neighborhood bully."
13. "My City Was Gone", by the Pretenders.
Virtually every conservative knows the bass line, which supplies the theme music for Limbaugh's radio show. But the lyrics also display a Jane Jacobs sensibiliity against central planning and a conservative's dissatisfaction with rapid change; "I went back to Ohio/But my pretty countryside/Had been paved down the middle/By a government that had no pride."
14. "Right Here, Right Now," ny Jesus Jones.
The words are vague, but they're also about the fall of Communism and the end of the Cold War; "I was alvie and I waited for this ... Watching the world wake up from history."
15. "I fought the Law", by the Crickets.
The original law-and-order classic, made famous in 1965 by the Bobby Fuller Four and covered by just about everyone since then.
16. "Get Over It", by the Eagles.
Against the culture of givevance; "The big, bad world doesn't owe you a thing". There's also this nice line" "I'd like to find your inner child and kick its little ass."
17. "Stay Together for the Kids", by Blink 182.
A euglogy for family values by an all-rock band whose members were raised in a generation without enough of them: "So here's your holiday/Hope you enjoy it his time/You gave it all away ....It's not right".
18. "Cult of Personality", by Living Colour.
A hard rocking critique of state power, whacking Mussolini, Stalin and even JFK:" I exploit you, still you love love me/I tell you one and one makes three/I'm the cult of personality".
19. " Kicks," by Paul Revere and the Raiders.
An anti-utopian: "Well, you think you're gonna find yourself a little piece of paradise/But it ain't happened yet, so girl you better think twice."
20. "Rock the Casbah", by the Clash.
After 9/11, American radio stations were urged not to play this 1982 song, one of the biggest hits by a seminal punk band, because it was seen as too provocative. Meanwhile, British Forces Broadcasting Service (the radio station for British troops serving in Iraq) has said that this is one of its most requested tunes.
21. "Heroes", by David Bowie.
A Cold War love song about a man and a woman divided by the Berlin Wall. No moral equivalence here: "I can remember/Standing/By the wall/And the guns/Shot above our heads/And we kissed/As though nothing could fall/And no shame/Was on the other side/Oh we can beat them/ For ever and ever."
22. Red Barchetta," by Rush.
In a time of "the Motor Law', presumably legislated by green extremists, the signer describes family reunion and the thrill of driving fast car -- an act that is his "weekly crime."
23. "Brick", by Ben Folds Five.
Written from the perspective of a man who takes his young girlfriend to an abortion clinic, this song describes the emotional scars of "re-productive freedom": "Now she's feeling more alone/Than she ever has before .. As weeks went by/It showed that she was not fine."
24. "Der Kommissar", by After the Fire.
On the misery of East German life: "Don't turn around, uh-oh/Der Kommissar's in town/And you're so weak/And your frustration/Will not let you speak". Also a hit song for Falco, who wrote it.
25. "The Battle of Evermore," by Led Zeppelin.
For a song released in 1971, it's hard to miss the Cold War metaphor: "The tyrants' face is read,"
26. "Capitalism", by Oingo Boingo.
"There's nothing wrong with Capitalism/There's nothing wrong with free enterprise... You're just a middle class, socialist brat/From a suburban family and you never really had to work."
27. "Obvious Song", by Joe Jackson.
For property rights and economic developement, and against liberal hypocrisy; "There was a man in the jungle/Trying to make ends meet/Found himself one day with an axe in his hand/When a voice said 'Buddy can you sapre that tree/We gotta save the world--- starting with your land'/It was a rock 'n roll millionaire from the USA/Doing three to the gallon in a big white car".
28. Janie's Got a Gun", by Aerosmith.
How the right to bear arms can protect women drom sexual predators; "What did her daddy do?/It's Janie's last I.O.U./She had to take him down easy/And out a bullet in his brain/She said 'cause nobody believes me/The man was such a sleaze/He ain't never gonna be the same".
29. "Rime of the Ancient Mariner", by Iron Maiden.
A heavy metal classic inspired by a literary classic. How many other rock songs quote directly from Samuel Taylor Coolidge?
30. "You Can't Be Too Strong", by Graham Parker.
Although it's not explicitly pro-life, this tune describes the horror of abortion with bracing honesty" "Did they tear it out with talons of steel, and gave you a shot sot hat you would'nt feel?"
31. "Small Town", by John Mellecamp.
A Burkean rocker; "No, I cannot forget where it is that I come from/I cannot forget the people who love me."
32. "Keep Your Hands To Yourself", by the Gerogia Sattelites.
An outstanding vocal performance, with lyrics that affirm old-time sexual mores: "She said no huggy, no kissy until I get a wedding vow."
33. "You Can't Always Get What You Want", by the Rolling Stones.
You can go "down to the demonstration" and vent your frustration, but you mut understand that there's no such thing as a perfect society -- there are merely decent and free ones.
34. "Godzilla", by Blue Oyster Cult.
A 1977 classic about a big green monster -- and more; "History shows again and again/How nature points up the folly of men."
35. "Who'll Stop the Rain," by Credence Clearwater Revival.
Written as an anti-Vietnam War song, this tune nevertheless is pessimistic about activism and takes a dim view of both Communism and liberalism; "Five year plans and new deals, wrapped in golden chains."
36. "Government Cheese", by the Rainmakers.
A protest song against the welfare state by a Kansas City band that deserved more success that it got. The first line: " Give a man a free house and he'll bust out of windows".
37. "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down", by the Band.
Despite its sins, the American South always had been about more than racism -- this song captures its pride and tradition.
38. "I Can't Drive 55", by Sammy Hagar.
A rocker's objection to the nanny state.
39. "Property Line", by the Marshall Tucker Band.
The sedret to happiness, accroding to these southern rock heavyweights, is life, liberty and property: "Well my idea if a good time/Is walkin my property line/And knowin' the mud on my boots is mine".
40. "Wake Up Little Suzie", by the Everly Brothers.
A smash hit in 1957, back when high school social pressures were rather different from what they have become: "We fell asleep, our goose is cooked, our reputation is shot."
41. "The Icicle Melts", by the Cranberries.
A pro-life tune sung by Irish warbler Dolores O'Riordan: " I don't know what's happening to people today/When a child, he was taken away... 'Cause nine months is too long."
42. "Everybody's a Victim", by the Proclaimers.
This Scottish band recorded a catchy song about the problem of suspedning moral judgement: "it doesn't matter what I do/You have to say it's all right... Everybody's a victim/We're becoming like USA."
43. "Wonderful", by Everclear.
A child's take on divorce: "I don't wanna hear you say/That I will uderstand someday/No, no, no, no/I don't wanna hear you say/You both have gwoan in a different way/No.no,no,no/I don't wanna meet your friends/And I just want my life to be the same/ Just like it used to be."
44. "Two Sister's", by the Kinks.
Why the "drudgery of being wed" is more rewarding than bohemian life.
45. "Taxman, Mr. Thief", by Cheap Trick.
An anti-tax protest song: "You work hard, you went hungry/Now the taxman is out to get you...He hates you, he loves money."
46. "Wind of Change", by the Scorpions.
A German had rock group's optimistic power ballad about the end of Cold War and national reunification: "The world is closing in/Did you ever thin/That we could be so close, like Brothers/The future's in the air/I can feel it everywhere/Blowwing with the wind of change."
47. "One", by the Creed.
Against racial preferences: "Scoiety blind by color/Why hold down one to raise both sides/Seeds of hare blossom further."
48. "Why Don't You Get A Job", by the Offspring.
The lyrics are aren't exactly Shalespearean, but they're refreshingly blunt and they capture a motive force behind welfare reforms.
49. "Abortion", by Kid Rock.
Aplaintive song sung by a man who confronts his unborn child's abortion: "I know your brothers and your sister and your mother too/Man I wish you could see them too."
50. "Stand By Your Man", by Tammy Wynette.
Hillary trashed it --- isnt' that enough? If Wynette's original is too country, then check out the cover version by Motorhead.
(Source: CHICSUNTIMES by 2006 National Review,Inc., 215 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 1:55 PM
| Sunday, June 11, 2006
| PREVENTING THE FURTHER SPREAD OF HIV/AIDS: THE ESSENTIAL ROLE OF HUMAN RIGHTS
|AIDS is no longer just a disease. It is a human rights issue,
By: Nelson Mandela
AFTER TWENTY YEARS, the global pandemic is still expanding. More than forty million people are living with HIV/AIDS. In 2005, five million people were newly infected, and three million died of AIDA. Between 2003 and 2005, the number of people living with HIV in East Asia rose by more than 25 percent, and the number of people living with HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia rose by more than one-third. However, sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the worst-affected region. Countries such as Lesotho and Swaziland,with nearly one in three adults infected, are openly presented as possibly being the first countries to "die" of AIDS.
Why has the epidemic spread so inexorably across the globe? Why have countires failed to act -- or acted so ineffectually -- to stop the epidemic from progressing? It has been acknowledged for almost as long as HIV has been recognized that HIV/AIDS is fundamentally tied to human rights abuses. But such acknowlegement has had surprisingly little impact on the global response to the epidemic, and this failure explains, to a large extent, why we have made so little progress.
Worldwide, vulnerability to HIV/AIDS is linked to population marginalized by society because of their gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, or social or economic class. Human rights are central both to our understanidng of the dynamics of the disease and to how we must combat it.
HIV/AIDS is commonly thought to be related to "economic, social and cultural rights", (such as the right to health care), as opposed to "civil and political rights", such as freedom of expression and association and due process of law. However, many of the human rights abuses that most increase HIV risk -- violence and discrimination against women and marginalized populations as well as people living with HIV/AIDS, harassment and imprisonment without due process of outreaxch workers and at-risk populations seeking HIV/AIDS information or services, and censorship of health information -- are abuses of civil and political rights. The fact that these abuses have a concrete impact on the health of individuals underscores what has been called the "indivisibility" of human rights norms -- the notion that civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights are mutually reinforcing and derive from a single principle; the fundamental dignity of each human being.
While there is widespread, though by no means universal, recofnition that social stigma can fuel the epidemic, and that the characteristics of HIV infection donot warrant intrusive restrictions on liberty, all too often these basic understandings are not reflected in law or in concrete policy terms. Equally important, there is uneven (at best) appreciation of the broader human rights issues that contributes to the continuing spread of the disease. Most perversely, some of the critical lessons about stopping HIV/AIDS, learned painfully and acted on with positive results in the 1980s and 1990s, are now being disregarded. Even while treatment options are expanding, responses to HIV/AIDS in many places are getting further from the science based, human rights informed response that has been proven to stop the spread of the disease. Left unaddressed, human rights will undermine HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment.
The response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic by governments and multilateral agencies must recognize and respect human rights. In parts fo the world today, the lack of an adequate response to the epidemic -- wherther due to denial of the exustence or extent of the epidemic, missappropriation of resources, or hostility to those individuals infected or those populations most at risk of infection -- represents a basic violation of the right to health. In other countries HIV education, prevention, and treatment programs are inaccurate or inequitable.
All individuals, including those most marginalized, must enjoy access to accurate infroamtion about HIV/AIDS and have equal access to HIV/AIDS programs. HIV testing in particular -- as the entry point for access to anti-retroviral drugs and important services -- must be accessible to all. But efforts to expand HIV testing, and to put in place "routine" testing, must not become coercive, must recognize the rights of the individuals being tested, and must provide linkages to both prevention and care.
Across the globe, people test positive for HIV have been denied employment, fired from their jobs, kicked out of hospitals, denied both HIV specific and general medical treatment, harassed and assaulted by community members who find out their status, and sometimes even killed. Because human rights abuses fuel the HIV epidemic, HIV/AIDS programs must explicitly address, and find ways to mitigate, these abuses.
Combating the rights abuses that put vulnerable population at risk of HIV is essential to turning around the AIDS crisis. Concrete policy measures are urgently needed and can have immediate and long-term impact. New laws can be put in the areas of inheritance, sexual violence, domestic violence and spousal rape, marriage, division of property upon divorce, land use and ownership, and access to housing and social services.
Programmatic reforms, designed to address human rights violations, should ensure that national HIV/AIDS programs include measure to combat discrimination and violence against people living with HIV/AIDS, with particular attention to marginalized populations.Efforts should also be made to provide himan rights training for judges, police, and other officials; improve data collection relating to polic abuse that anti-retroviral drug distribution systems recognize the challenges marginalized populations face in accessing treatment; and ensure that HIV test results and other patient information is kept confidential. Public education campaigns on the human rights of people living with HIV/AIDS in local languages and using appropriate media should be intensified.
It is sometimes suggested that paying attention tohuman rights is somehow so costly and time consuming that it should really be considered optional during a public health crisis. However, there is nor eason for public health and human rights be considered in opposition to one another. IN responding to the global HIB/AIDS epidemic, only programs that start with a basic respect for individuals, and their rights, will be successful. Those program which adopt strategies in the name of efficiency or ideology and which fail to respect human rights will ultimately fail.
(Abstracted from the book:WORLD REPORT 2006 by: Joseph Amon (directs the HIV/AIDS Program at Human Rights Watch)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 12:31 AM
| Friday, June 09, 2006
| PHILIPPINE HISTORY: DATELINE 1898 : COUNTDOWN TO INDEPENDENCE
|The Filipinos' fight for freedom against Spain 108 years ago was their "finest hour".
THE ROAD TO PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE ON JUNE 12,1898 was strewn with intrigues, battles and bravado, but the endo fo four centuries of Spanish rule in the country was an all-Filipino triumph that was our people's finest hour.
The terms of the truce treaty signed in Biyak-na-Bato (by the Spanish government and the Filipino revolutionary forces) in December 1897 were violated by both the Spaniards and the Filipinos. On February 14,1898, the Junta (council) of exiled Filipino revolutionary leaders and other patriots repudiated the treaty.
A battle between the rebels and the Spanish forces broke out on Febraury 19, just 15 kilometers east of Manila. The American consul in Manila reported that the regime was committing "barbarities" and there were "casualties too horried for an official report....; the vilest cruelties of war are added to the mangling of old men, womens and children to make full the measures of iniquity." These battles and their repercussions went on well into March with the revolutionary forces making headway in Bulacan, Camarines, Laguna, Nueva Ecija and Pangasinan.
The 7th regiment of the Spanish army in Cavite, composed of Filipinos, was ordered to attack the rebels on March 24. They refused. Eight corporals were executed. The soldiers still refused to attack; the next day they deserted to the rebels, taking arms and equipments with them.
That same day the Guardia Civil killed 12 and captured 62 unarmed Visayan sailors in Binondo. The next day they executed their captives. The government claimed a conspiracy, but it believed that even innocent passers-by and civil government employees were among those killed. On April 3, Leon Quilat led an attack on the capitol of Cebu -- the revolutions had spread to the Visayas. The Spaniards retreated to Fort San Pedro. The rebels later captured a Guardia Civil detachment in Talisay. The Spaniards, with reinforcements, recaptured Cebu on April 8.
On April 24, 1898, Aguinaldo sent a message to the revolutionaries in the Philippijes to continue their fight against the Spaniards,that "Before long I will not fail to be there with you". Aguinaldo arrived in Hongkong from Singapore on May 2 but news of George Deweys' defeat of the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay worried the Hongkong junta. The junta met on may 4 and Felipe Agoncillo, a diplomat of the Biyak-na-Bato republic, argued that Aguinaldo should return to the Philippines immediately.
"President Aguinaldo with his status would be able to rouse the people to rise and oppose the demands of the United States, if the latter intended to colonize their country, or inspire them, if the circumstance would require it, to wage a Titanic struggle for their independence, even if they should succumb in the course of rejecting the yoke of the new oppressor."
On the other hand, Agoncillo also felt that the fundamental principles of the American Constitution would not allow its government to colonize the Philippines. He thought that the Americans might help the Filipinos regain their independence from Spain and that Aguinaldo should be there to keep the Filipinos untied. He was afraid that if the Filipinos fouhgt among themselves, foreign powers would use that as a reason to interfere in Philippine affairs.
The junta eventually decided that Aguinaldo should return immediately to the Philippines. He arrived at the Cavite harbor on May 19 on board and American cutter McCullough and met with Dewey before landing. He left Dewey still hopeful that the Americans would honor PHilipine independence. He was not aware that on this day U.S. President McKinley had ordered his secretaries of war, navy and treaury to occupy the Philippines.
Two days after his return to Cavite, Aguinaldo announced that the Revolution would officially resume at noon on May 31. He asked the people to win over the Filipinos who had joined the native militia organized by the Spaniards to fight the Americans. He also instructed all revolutionary forces to wage "proper" war, otherswise, "the Americans will decide to sell us, or else divide up our territory ....; and our own land will be delivered over to other hands."
On May 22 Felipe Buencamino told Aguinaldo that Governor-General Basilio Augustin, who had replaces Primo de Rivera on April 10, was offering to make Aguinaldo chief of the Philippine armed forces and a brigadier general in the Spanish army. Aguinaldo had Buencamino arrested and jailed until Buencamino defected to Aguinaldo on June 6.
On May 24 Aguinaldo announced the formation of a temporary "dictatorial government" that would administer the islands until a consitutional republican assembly could be organized, which would then appoint a president and cabinet. He referred to America as the "cradle of genuine liberty" that was providing "distinterested protection" to the Filipinos. He also declared the Biak-na-Bato constotution null and void.
On June 2 the Spanish commanding general in Cavite surrendered to Generals Artemio Recarte and Mariano Trias in San Franciso de Malabon. Ricarte and Trias had been appointed to Aguinaldo's native militia and their men had been armed by the Spaniards.
Buencamino had been appointed to take charge of the native militia defending Zapote, while Pio del Pilar was in command of the native militia of Bacoor. Both militia groups defected to Aguinaldo, allowing Filipino forces to enter Manila. They laid seige on INtramuros.
On JUne 3, Augustin reported to Madrid that Aguinaldo had resumed the Revolutiona and that the Spanish commanding general in Cavite had been isolated. Reinforcements sent to rescue him were repulsed in a long battle. By June 8 Ausustin reported that the situation was "very serious" and the "enemy coming from Bulacan,Laguna and Cavite has surrounded the city of Manila." He thought that had Aguinaldo not returned he would have been able to wait for reinforcements from Spain. He did not know that Spain at that time had no reinforcements to send.
Aguinaldo had Buencamino send a letter to Augustin on June 9 asking the governor to surrender. Buencamino informed Augustin that since June 2 the Revolution had taken 2,500 prisoners. more than 5,000 rifles, eight cananons and many friars. He also informed Augustin that Pampanga had fallen to the revolutionary forces and that Spanish forces were surrounded in San Fernando and also in Lipa, Batangas. Augustin did not surrender, waiting it out in Intramuros until he was replaced on August 5.
Aguinaldo issued a decree on June 5 setting June 12 as the day when the Philippines would proclaim its independence. Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista was appointed auditor general of war by Aguinaldo on June 10 and given the task of writing the Act Of the Proclamation of Independence. Dewey declined the invitation to attend.
On June 12 around 4pm, the original Spanish text of the proclamation was read by Bautista to the crowd that had gathered in front of Aguinaldo's house in Kawit. The proclamation declared that Filipinos "are and have the right to be free and independent" and that the Philippines from that day onward "commences to have a life of its own". The document officially severed politial ties between the Philippines and Spain and invoked "the Supreme judge of the Universe" as witness to the Filipinos independence and sovereignty. It also mentioned the "protection of the mighty and humanitarian nation, North America."
The proclamation also referred to the centuries of abuse endured by the Filipino people under Spanish rule, espeically the Guardia Civil, General Blanco, the archbishop and the "greedy friars". The text linked the Revolution to the battles fouhgt by the likes of Soliman and Lakandula, who were independent and sovereign. The Revolution was seen as recovering what had been lost. The martyrdom of Gomburza and Rizal was also cited.
Buencamino then addressed the crowd in Tagalog, asking the people to defend the flag, which Aguinaldo had designed based on various flags of the Revolution. It was made in Hongkong by Dona Marcela Marino de Agoncillo, Delfina Herbosa de Natividad ( a niece of Jose Rizal) and Natividad's eldest daughter, sever year old Lornza. Ricarte interpreted the flag for the crowd; an explanation of the flag's elements was included in the proclamation.
A composition by Julian Felipe just a week earlier, the "Marcha Filipino Magdalo", was played by the Banda San Franciso de Malabon (Banda Matanda) at the June 12 ceremonies. The piece became the national anthem; it was renamed, "Marcha Nacional Filipina." A year later, Jose Velasquez Palma wrote a poem in Spanish entitled "Filipinas,Letras para la Marcha Nacional" The poem became the lyrics of the national anthem, which was renamed "Himno Nacional Filipino".
(Source: FILIPINASMAG/ Reprinted with permission from "10 Events That Shaped the Philippines", Virgilio S. Almario, Emelinda S. Almario and Mary-Ann Asico,eds., National Centennial Commission and Adarna Book Services, 1999.)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 9:54 PM
| Wednesday, June 07, 2006
| AQUA KAMA SUTRA
|Having sex in water adds a sensual splash to your encounters. And what better time to get wet and wild than this summer?
Have your guy sit on the inner tube with his legs over the edge. Then straddle his lap while facing him, and slowly lower yourself onto his penis with your hands on his shoulders or the tube for support. Once he's inside you, begin to rock back and forth. He can intensify the action by grasping your hips to help propel you.
Why you'll love it: This face-to-face position is seriously intimate. Since the inner tube is hollow in the middle, the splashing water created by yiur trusting hits both of your down-there domains, which only adds to the titilation factor.
AQUA EXTRA: To get into abetter G-spotting pose, change the angle of penetration by placing your legs over his shoulders and leaning back.
DEEP WATER DARE
Erotic Instructions: When you and your guy are swimming, make your way to chest-high water and stand face to face. Hold on to his shoulders as you jump up and wrap your legs tigtly around his tighs. Have him cradle your butt with both hands to keep you propped uo as he enters you. The water will make you weightless, so you can easily glide back and forth.
Why you'll love it: This pose is discreet enough to try out in a lake or the ocean without getting caught. And there's nothing like th thrill of doing it outside. Just knowing that you're being a little bit bad amps up the excitement.
AQUA EXTRA Make sure you don't wind up bare-assed by letting your bikini bottomw ash out to sea. Push it to the side instead of taking itall the way off.
Erotic Instructions: Start with your guy sitting on the bench in the tub, with is knees bent and legs slightly spread, leanign back with his arms outstreched and resting on the edge of the tub. Straddle him, facing forward, and lower yourself onto his penis, holding on to his shoulders for support. Keep your knees bent and feet flast as you move up and down or back and forth.
Why you'll love it: The space between your torsos allows both of you rto watch the action. There's also room for pelvic play, so you can maximize clitoral stimulation by rubbing your bliss button against his pubic bone as you gyrate.
AQUA EXTRA Take adbvantage of this you-on-top pose to titilate his peasure receptive nipples. Draw gentle circles around them as you grind.
Erotic Instructions: Climb onto a well inflated raft in hsallw water and lie on your stomach with your butt and legs dangling over the edge. Your man should grab on to your thighs, as if he were pushing a wheelbarrow, and enter you. He can then pull you incredibly close for the depest possible penetration.
Why you'll love it: The Randy Raft delivers a double whammy. First, your guy can move your legs up and down to vary the angle of penetration, creating alternatiing sensations for you. Plus, since you can't see him, you aren't able to anticipate what his next move will be, which is surprisingly thrilling.
AQUA EXTRA As your man gets close to climaxing, have him lean forward so his chest is pressed against your back for an intimate skin-to-skin finale.
BEACH BALL BOOTY
Erotic instructions: This position gives a whole new meaning to the pharse havin'a ball. With your back to the ocean, lie facedown at the shoreline. Place a beacj ball under your pelvis, keeping your legs slgihtly spread and your arms outstretched in front of you. Your partner lies over you in the ame position, with is legs together between yours, and enters you from behind.
Why you'll love it: With your pelvis elevated by the ball, your man has primo access to your G-spot. The combo of his thrusts and the lapping water against your skin feels down heavenly.
AQUA EXTRA Dig your toes into the sand to steady yourself. Being acnhored gives you better leverage for more passionately pelving pumping.
Source: COSMOMAGE/Love and Lust by: Colleen Rush)
|posted by infraternam meam @ 9:42 PM